Item 243081. SHUL-ALMANAKH: TSUM GRADUIR YON-TEV.
Item 243081. SHUL-ALMANAKH: TSUM GRADUIR YON-TEV.

SHUL-ALMANAKH: TSUM GRADUIR YON-TEV.

Nyu York [New York] : Aroysg. fun di Idishe Arbeter Kinder-Shuln, 1930. Paper Wrappers. Item #42000

1st edition. Original green printed wrappers, 8vo 32 pages. In Yiddish. Title translates as, “School-Almanach. For the Graduation Celebration.” Published in May, 1930, and thus one of the very first publications of the International Workers Order (IWO), which was founded that year. “The International Workers Order (IWO) was an insurance, mutual benefit and fraternal organization founded in 1930 and disbanded in 1954 as the result of legal action undertaken by the state of New York in 1951 on the grounds that the organization was too closely linked to the Communist Party. At its height in the years immediately following World War II, the IWO reached nearly 200,000 members and provided low-cost health and life insurance, medical and dental clinics, and supported foreign-language newspapers, cultural and educational activities. The organization also operated a summer camp and cemeteries for its members. The International Workers Order began as the byproduct of a split of The Workmen's Circle (Der Arbeter Ring, now called The Workers Circle), a Jewish mutual benefit society of social democratic coloration.…During the factionally charged political climate of the American Left in the 1920s, a parallel Communist fraternal benefit society emerged—the IWO. The origins of the split that established the IWO date back to 1922. In February of that year, a nominating conference of the Arbeter Ring was held, at which a new Executive Committee was to be nominated. Nearly 200 delegates attended this conference, which was dominated by adherents of the Socialist Party of America (SPA), who prevented adherents of the Communist movement from gaining a single seat on the Credentials Committee. A spontaneous walkout of Left Wing delegates resulted. In May 1922 the Workmen's Circle held its 22nd Convention at Toronto. This gathering was attended by 26 Left Wing delegates out of a total of 138. These two fractions battled over two resolutions of the Executive Committee: one against Soviet Russia for its judicial action against the Socialist Revolutionaries and other political opponents of the regime, and a second directed against the Workers Party of America and its Yiddish language organ, the Morgen Freiheit (Morning Freedom). While the SPA-influenced delegates held the day, a 'Protest Convention' quickly organized in response to the resolutions of the 22nd Convention. This was held on June 2, 1922, and attended by 338 delegates, representing 235 branches of the organization from 23 states.[2]The National Executive Committee of the Workmen's Circle struck back, dissolving the Left Wing-dominated Boston District Committee and removing several Left Wingers from positions of authority in the organization. The Left Wing found itself in a majority position in Minnesota, Missouri, Virginia, Texas, and Ontario, inspiring the National Executive Committee to dissolve the five state organizations, as well as various Left Wing branches. Despite the rough treatment, the Left Wing resisted splitting the organization, instead opting to continue its fight within the Workman's Circle organization itself. This tactic was followed through 1925. The 1925 Convention of the Arbeter Ring was particularly bitter. Nearly 1,000 delegates were in attendance, of whom approximated one-fourth supported a program of the Left Wing calling for the Workmen's Circle to become an actively political organization. The Left Wing fought relentlessly to win the right to read a 10-minute statement to the convention, declaring that 'to our shame, the Workmen's Circle, our Order, lately has become and out-and-out toll and weapon in the hands of the reactionary element in the Jewish working class movement.' A two-day 'National Protest Conference' was held in response to the Socialist-dominated convention, which was attended by the representatives of 191 branches. The conference organized itself into a 'Left Wing Alliance' and declared that it would fight 'against the terror of the Right Wing machine' and 'for the non-party [i.e. non-Socialist Party] character of the Workmen's Circle.' Aid to the children's school movement, a pet project of the Left, was pledged. The National Executive Committee of the Workmen's Circle responded to the organization of the Left Wing Alliance predictably, expelling 64 branches with a membership of close to 15,000….A split was at hand. On October 11, 1929, a three-day 'National Conference of Minority Groups of the Workmen's Circle' gathered in New York City, attended by 193 delegates, representing 108 branches and 23 minority factions of branches. These delegates unanimously decided to leave the Workmen's Circle and build a new explicitly working class order….The first General Secretary of the IWO was Rubin Saltzman and the first President was William Weiner, both 'open and prominent' members of the Communist Party USA. Scholar Robert M. Zecker describes the IWO as a 'mutual self-insurance society.' The IWO provided very low cost term life insurance, coverage which could be supplemented with additional protection against sickness….For many, the IWO took over the social functions associated with the Communist Party's language federations, which had lessened in importance throughout the decade of the 1920s. Different national sections of the IWO published news in their own languages, organized singing societies, sports teams, marching bands, dance companies, and theater groups. The IWO grew rapidly, from a tiny organization of 3,000 to 5,000 members at the time of formation in 1930, the organization rocketed to a membership of 67,000 by 1935.By its third convention on May 6–11, 1935, Max Bedacht had become IWO general secretary. By 1938 it had grown to over 141,000….As World War II approached, membership in the IWO continued to climb. At the end of September 1941, the organization claimed a membership of 155,000 and assets approaching $1.9 million.According to the testimony of IWO General Secretary Max Bedacht, these members had organized into over 19,000 branches and generated an income for the organization of over $1 million per year. At its height in the years immediately following World War II, the IWO had almost 200,000 members and provided low-cost health and life insurance, medical and dental clinics, and supported foreign-language newspapers, cultural and educational activities. The IWO offered insurance to all working people at the same rate regardless of race or occupation and was, at the time, the only service provider where African Americans could obtain insurance at the same rate as others and also the only place where workers in dangerous occupations such as coal mining could obtain insurance at a rate equivalent to other occupations.The IWO also ran a Jewish summer camp, Camp Kinderland and the racially integrated camp Wo-Chi-Ca. Additionally the IWO owned and operated cemeteries throughout the US and Canada, a common practice among left wing Jewish mutual-aid organizations like the Farband and the Workmen's Circle.While the leadership of IWO sections were members of the Communist Party, most of the IWO's rank-and-file members were not party members…. As a financial support mechanism of the Communist Party, the IWO came under concerted government attack during the Cold War which erupted following the termination of World War II. The U.S. Attorney General placed the IWO on its list of subversive organizations in 1947. Though financially solvent and conservatively managed, the New York State Insurance Department contended that, since the IWO was engaged in political activity, which was prohibited to insurance organizations, it placed its members' interests in jeopardy, leading ultimately to its liquidation in 1954 by order of the New York State Insurance Department…..During the COVID-19 pandemic, the IWO received mention as a mutual aid society that might bear revisit for applicability to the growing number of gig workers, left out of a 20th-century system whose benefits to employees depends on full-time employment…”(Wikipedia)SUBJECT(S): Jewish schools -- United States. Jewish children -- Education -- Enfants juifs -- E´ducation -- E´tats-Unis. OCLC: 123075503. OCLC lists only 2 copies worldwide (YIVO, Harvard). Old dampstains, and glossy paper has stuck together in the inside upper margins, creating a quarter-sized area of loss to many of the pages. Wrappers and glossy paper has held up well, much better than the usual pulp paper of the period. Very rare and important, despite damage. Fair Condition (YID-42-34-’+).

Price: $200.00